Biography of Muhammad

Biography of Muhammad

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About Prophet Mohammad In QURAN

Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of God and the Last of the Prophets

(Qur’an 33:40)

“Certainly you have in the Messenger of Allah an excellent example (of conduct) for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day, and who engages much in the Praise of Allah.”

(Quran, 33:21)

What Non-Muslims say about Prophet Mohammad

“In little more than a year he was actually the spiritual, nominal and temporal ruler of Medina, with his hands on the lever that was to shake the world.”

John Austin, “Muhammad the Prophet of Allah” in T.P.’s and Cassel’s Weekly

“The league of nations founded by the Prophet of Islam put the principle of international unity of human brotherhood on such Universal foundations as to show candle to other nations. The fact is that no nation of the world can show a parallel to what Islam has done – the realization of the idea of the League of Nations.”

C. Snouck Hurgronje, “Where Christian and Mohammedan Meet”

“I became more than ever convinced that it was not the sword that won a place for Islam in those days in the scheme of life. It was the rigid simplicity, the utter self-effacement of the prophet, the scrupulous regard for his pledges, his intense devotion to his friends and followers, his intrepidity, his fearlessness, his absolute trust in God and in his own mission. These, and not the sword carried everything before them and surmounted every trouble.”

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948) Indian thinker, statesman, and nationalist leader. [Young India (periodical), 1928, Volume X]

“The greatest success of Mohammad’s life was effected by sheer moral force without the stroke of a sword.”

[History Of The Saracen Empire, London, 1870]

“His (i.e., Muhammad’s) memory was capacious and retentive, his wit easy and social, his imagination sublime, his judgment clear, rapid and decisive. He possessed the courage of both thought and action.”

[History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, London, 1838, vol.5, p.335]

Edward Gibbon (1737-1794) Considered the greatest British historian of his time.

“Four years after the death of Justinian, A.D. 569, was born at Mecca, in Arabia the man who, of all men exercised the greatest influence upon the human race . . . Mohammed.”

[A History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, London, 1875, vol.1, pp. 329-330] John William Draper (1811-1882) American scientist, philosopher, and historian.

“Serious or trivial, his daily behaviour has instituted a canon which millions observe this day with conscious mimicry. No one regarded by any section of the human race as Perfect Man has been imitated so minutely. The conduct of the Founder of Christianity has not so governed the ordinary life of His followers. Moreover, no Founder of a religion has been left on so solitary an eminence as the Muslim Apostle.”

David George Hogarth (1862-1927) English archaeologist, author, and keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. [Arabia, Oxford, 1922, p. 52]

“My choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world’s most influential persons may surprise some readers and may be questioned by others, but he was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the religious and secular level.”

[The 100: A Ranking Of The Most Influential Persons In History, New York, 1978, p. 33] Michael H. Hart (1932- ) Professor of astronomy, physics and the history of science.

“His readiness to undergo persecutions for his beliefs, the high moral character of the men who believed in him and looked up to him as leader, and the greatness of his ultimate achievement – all argue his fundamental integrity. To suppose Muhammad an impostor raises more problems than it solves. Moreover, none of the great figures of history is so poorly appreciated in the West as Muhammad.”

[Mohammad At Mecca, Oxford, 1953, p. 52]William Montgomery Watt (1909- ) Professor (Emeritus) of Arabic and Islamic Studies at the University of Edinburgh.

“Philosopher, orator, apostle, legislator, warrior, conqueror of ideas, restorer of rational dogmas, of a cult without images; the founder of twenty terrestrial empires and of one spiritual empire, that is Muhammad. As regards all standards by which human greatness may be measured, we may well ask, is there any man greater than he?”

[Translated from Histoire De La Turquie, Paris, 1854, vol. II, pp. 276-277] Alphonse de Lamartine(1790-1869) French poet and statesman.

“… he was Caesar and Pope in one; but he was Pope without the Pope’s pretensions, and Caesar without the legions of Caesar. Without a standing army, without a bodyguard, without a palace, without a fixed revenue, if ever any man had the right to say that he ruled by a right Divine, it was Mohammed; for he had all the power without its instruments and without its supports.”

[Mohammed and Mohammedanism, London, 1874, p. 235] Reverend Bosworth Smith(1794-1884) Late Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford.

“He was sober and abstemious in his diet, and a rigorous observer of fasts. He indulged in no magnificence of apparel, the ostentation of a petty mind; neither was his simplicity in dress affected, but the result of a real disregard to distinction from so trivial a source … In his private dealings he was just. He treated friends and strangers, the rich and poor, the powerful and the weak, with equity, and was beloved by the common people for the affability with which he received them, and listened to their complaints … His military triumphs awakened no pride nor vain glory, as they would have done had they been effected for selfish purposes. In the time of his greatest power he maintained the same simplicity of manners and appearance as in the days of his adversity. So far from affecting regal state, he was displeased if, on entering a room, any unusual testimonial of respect were shown to him.”

[Life of Mahomet, London, 1889, pp. 192-3, 199] Washington Irving (1783-1859) Well-known as the “first American man of letters”.

“It is impossible for anyone who studies the life and character of the great Prophet of Arabia, who knows how he taught and how he lived, to feel anything but reverence for that mighty Prophet, one of the great messengers of the Supreme. And although in what I put to you I shall say many things which may be familiar to many, yet I myself feel whenever I re-read them, a new way of admiration, a new sense of reverence for that mighty Arabian teacher.”

[The Life And Teachings Of Muhammad, Madras, 1932, p. 4] Annie Besant(1847-1933) British theosophist and nationalist leader in India. President of the Indian National Congress in 1917.

“Muhammad was the soul of kindness, and his influence was felt and never forgotten.”

Diwan Chand Sharma, “The Prophets of the East”

“People like Pasteur and Salk are leaders in the first sense. People like Gandhi and Confucius, on the other hand, and Alexander, Caesar on the other, are leaders in the second and perhaps the third sense. Jesus and Buddha belong in the third category alone. Perhaps the greatest leader of all time was Mohammad, who combined all the three functions. To a lesser degree Moses did the same.”

Jules Masserman in “Who Were Histories Great Leaders?” TIME Magazine.

“Head of State as well as Church, he was Caesar and Pope in One; but he was Pope without the Pope’s pretensions, and Caesar without the legions of Caesar, without a standing army, without a bodyguard, without police force, without a fixed revenue. If ever a man ruled by right Divine, it was Muhammad, for he had all the powers without their supports. He cared not for the dressings of power. The simplicity of his private life was in keeping with his public life.”

Reverend Bosworth Smith in “Muhammad and Muhammadanism”

“Four years after the death of Justinian, A.D. 569, was born in Mecca, in Arabia, the man Muhammad, who of all men, has exercised the greatest influence upon the human race. To be the religious head of many empires, to guide the daily life of one-third of the human race, may perhaps justify the title of a Messenger of God.”

Dr. William Draper, M.D. L.L.D. in “History of Intellectual Development of Europe”

“In little more than a year he was actually the spiritual, nominal and temporal ruler of Medina, with his hands on the lever that was to shake the world.”

John Austin, “Muhammad the Prophet of Allah” in T.P.’s and Cassel’s Weekly

“Never has a man set for himself, voluntarily or involuntarily, a more sublime aim, since this aim was super human; to subvert superstitions which had been imposed between man and his Creator, to render God unto man and man unto God; to restore the rational and sacred idea of divinity amidst the chaos of the material and disfigured gods of idolatry, then existing. Never has a man undertaken a work so far beyond human power with so feeble means, for he Muhammad had in the conception as well as in the execution of such a great design, no other instrument than himself and no other aid except a handful of men living in a corner of the desert. Finally, never has a man accomplished such a huge and lasting revolution in the world, because in less than two centuries after its appearance, Islam, reigned over the whole of Arabia, and conquered, in God’s name, Persia, Khorasan, Transoxania, Western India, Syria, Egypt, Abyssinia, all the known continent of Northern Africa, numerous islands of the Mediterranean Sea, Spain and part of Gaul.

If greatness of purpose, smallness of means, and astonishing results are the three criteria of human genius, who could dare compare any great man in history with Muhammad? The most famous men created arms, laws, and empires only. They founded, if anything at all, no more than material powers which often crumbled away before their eyes. This man moved not only armies, legislations, empires, peoples, dynasties, but millions of men in one-third of the then inhabited world; and more than that, he moved the altars, the gods, the religions, the ideas, the beliefs and the souls. The founder of twenty terrestrial empires and of one spiritual empire that is Muhammad. As regards all standards by which human greatness may be measured, we may well ask, is there any man greater than he?

Alphonse de LaMartaine in “Historie de la Turquie”

“The league of nations founded by the Prophet of Islam put the principle of international unity of human brotherhood on such Universal foundations as to show candle to other nations. The fact is that no nation of the world can show a parallel to what Islam has done – the realization of the idea of the League of Nations.”
C. Snouck Hurgronje, “Where Christian and Mohammedan Meet”

It is Time to Know Him

To learn more about Prophet Muhammad, click here.

Life of Muhammad (P.B.U.H)

Chronology of Events in the Life of Muhammad (P.B.U.H)
Brief Description of the Event Approximate Date
Age of the Holy Prophet according
to Lunar Calendar
Approximate Gregorian and Hijra dates BH=Before Hijra,
AH=After Hijra
The Holy Prophet of Islam, Muhammad, peace be upon him,
born an orphan His father Abdullah, may Allah be pleased
with him, had died a few months before the birth of his
son.
0 years 9 or 12 Rabi-ul-Awwal 52 or 53 BH April
570 or 571 AD
Hadrat Halima Sadiyya, may Allah be pleased with her,
appointed wet nurse.
8 days
Return to Mecca under the care of his mother 6 Years 46 BH 577 AD
Mother, Hadrat Amina, may Allah be pleased with her,
passes away
6 Years 46 BH 577 AD
Grandfather, Hadrat Abdul-Muttalib, may Allah be pleased
with him, died
8 Years 44 BH 579 AD
First visit to Syria with a trading caravan 12 years
40 BH, 583 AD
12 Years 40 BH 583 AD
Pledge of Fudul to help the needy and the oppressed 15 Years 37 BH 586 AD
Second journey to Syria for trade as an agent of Hadrat
Khadija, may Allah be pleased with her
25 Years 28 BH 595 AD
Marriage with Hadrat Khadija, may Allah be pleased with
her
25 Years 28 BH 595 AD
Birth of a son, Hadrat Qasim (may Allah be pleased with
him)
28 Years 25 BH 598 AD
Birth of his daughter, Hadrat Zainab, may Allah be pleased
with her
30 Years 23 BH 600 AD
Birth of his daughter, Hadrat Ruqayya, may Allah be
pleased with her
33 Years 20 BH 603 AD
Birth of his daughter, Hadrat Um-e-Kalthum, may Allah
be pleased with her
34 years 19 BH 604 AD
Renovation of Ka’aba and the placement of Hajr-e-Aswad
(Black Stone)
35 years 18 BH 605 AD
Birth of his daughter, Hadrat Fatima, may Allah be pleased
with her
35 years 18 BH605 AD
Hadrat Jibrail bought the First Revelation in the Cave
of Hira
40 Year 12 BH 610 AD
Revelation of the Holy Quran continues, Ministry of
the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is established.
Hadrat Khadija (the wife), Hadrat Abu Bakr (the best friend),
Hadrat Ali (the dearest cousin) and
Hadrat Zaid (a freed slave and adopted son), may Allah
be pleased with
them all, accept Islam
40 Years 6 months Friday 18 Ramadan 12 BH 14 August 610
AD
Open invitation to the people of Mecca to join Islam
under Allah’s command
43 Years 9 BH 614 AD
A group of Muslims emigrates to Abyssinia 46 Years 7 BH 615 AD
Blockade of Shi’b Abi-Talib 46 Years 7 BH 30 September 615 AD
Hadrat Hamza (paternal uncle) and Hadrat Umar, may Allah
be pleased with them, accept Islam
46 Years 6 BH 616 AD
Hadrat Abu Talib, (beloved uncle and guardian) and only
a few days later, Hadrat Khadija, the most beloved wife,
may Allah be pleased with them, passed away
49 Years Ramadan 3 BH January 619 AD
Marriage with Hadrat Sau’da, may Allah be pleased with
her
49 Years 3 BH 619 AD
Marriage with Hadrat Aisha, may Allah be pleased with
her
49 Years 3 BH 619 AD
Journey to Ta’if, about 40 miles from Mecca, for calling
the citizens of Ta’if to Islam
49 Years 3 BH 619 AD
Journey of Mi’raj. Five daily prayers made obligatory
for Muslims
50 Years 27 Rajab 2 BH 8 March 620 AD
Deputation from Medina accepts Islam 50 Years 2 BH 620 AD
First Pledge of ‘Aq’ba’ 52 Years Dhul Haj, 1 BH 621 AD
Second Pledge of ‘Aq’ba 52 Years 3 months BH June 622 AD
Hijra (migration) from Mecca to the cave of Thaur 52 Years Friday 27 Safar 10 September 622
Emigration to Medina begins 52 Years Monday 1 Rabi-ul-Awwal 13 September 622
AD
Arrival at Medina after the first Friday Prayer at Quba’s
Mosque
53 Years 12 Rabi-ul-Awwal 1st year AH 24 September
622 AD
Construction of the Holy Prophet’s Mosque at Medina.
Hadrat Bilal’s call for Prayer (Adhan)
53 Years 1st year AH 622 AD
Brotherhood pacts between Ansar (Muslims from Medina)
and Muhajirin (immigrants from Mecca)
53 Years 1st year AH 622 AD
Treaty with Jews of Medina 53 Years 1st year AH 622 AD
Permission to fight in self-defense is granted by Allah 53 Years 12 Safar 2 AH 14 August 623 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Waddan 53 Years 29 Safar 2 AH 31 August 623
Ghazwa (Battle) of Safwan 54 Years 2 AH 623 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) Dul-’Ashir 54 Years 2 AH 623 AD
Hadrat Salman Farsi, may Allah be pleased with him,
accepts Islam
54 Years 2 AH 624 AD
Revelation and change of Qibla (direction to face for
Formal Prayers, Salat) towards Ka’ba Fasting in the month
of Ramadan becomes obligatory
54 Years Sha’abn 2 AH February 624 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Badr 54 Years 12-17 Ramadan 2 AH March 8-13, 624 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Bani Salim 54 Years 25 Ramadan 2 AH 21 March 524 AD
Initiation of Eid-ul-Fitr and Zakat-ul-Fitr (Alms at
the Eid-ul-Fitr).
54 Years 28 Ramadan / 1 Shawwal 2 AH 24/25 March
624 AD
Zakat becomes obligatory for Muslims 54 Years Shawwal 2 AH April 624 AD
Nikah and Marriage ceremony of Hadrat Fatima, may Allah
be pleased with her
54 Years Shawwal 2 AH April 624 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Bani Qainuqa 54 Years 15 Shawwal 2 AH 10 April 624 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Sawiq 54 Years 5 Dhul-Haj 2 AH 29 May 624 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Ghatfan 54 Years Muharram 3 AH July 624 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Bahran 55 Years Rabi-us-Sani 3 AH October 624 AD
Marriage with Hadrat Hafsa, may Allah be pleased with
her
55 Years Shaban 3 AH January 625 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Uhad 55 Years 6 Shawwal 3 AH 22 March 625
Ghazwa (Battle) of Humra-ul-Asad 55 Years 8 Shawwal 3 AH 24 March 625 AD
Marriage with Hadrat Zainab Bint Khazima, may Allah
be pleased with her
55 Years Dhul-Haj 3 AH May 625 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Banu Nudair 56 Years Rabi-ul-Awwal 4 AH August 625 AD
Prohibition of Drinking in Islam 56 Years Rabi-ul-Awwal 4 AH August 625 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Dhatur-Riqa 56 Years Jamadi-ul-Awwal 4 AH October 625 AD
Marriage with Hadrat Um-e-Salma, may Allah be pleased
with her
56 Years Shawwal 4 AH March 626 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Badru-Ukhra 56 Years Dhul Qad 4 AH April 626
Ghazwa (Battle) of Dumatul-Jandal 57 Years 25 Rabi-ul-Awwal 5 AH
Ghazwa (Battle) of Banu Mustalaq Nikah with Hadrat Jawariya
bint Harith, may Allah be pleased with her
57 Years 3 Shaban 5 AH 28 December 626 AD
Marriage with Hadrat Zainab bint Hajash, may Allah be
pleased with her
57 Years Shawwal 5 AH February 627 AD
Revelation for Hijab, rules of modesty 57 Years 1 Dhi Qa’d 5 AH 24 March 627 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Ahzab or Khandaq (Ditch) 57 Years 8 Dhi Qa’d 5 AH 31 March 627 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Bani Quraiza 57 Years Dhul-Haj 5 AH April 627 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Bani Lahyan 57 Years 1 Rabi-ul-Awwal 6 AH 21 July 627 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Dhi Qard or Ghaiba 58 Years Rabi-ul-Akhar 6 AH August 627 AD
Treaty of Hudaibiyya 58 Years 1 Dhi Qa’d 6 AH 13 March 628 AD
Prohibition of Marriage with non-believers 58 Years Dhi Qa’d 6 AH March 628 AD
Marriage with Hadrat Habiba, may Allah be pleased with
her
58 Years Dhul-Haj 6 AH April 628 AD
Invitation sent to various rulers to accept Islam 58 Years 1 Muharram 7AH May 628 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Khaibar Return of Muslims from Abyssinia.
Marriage with Hadrat Safiyya, may Allah be pleased with
her. Ghazwa (Battle) of Wadiyul-Qura and Taim.
58 Years Muharram 7 AH June 628 AD
Performance of Umra (Umratul-Qada) Marriage with Hadrat
Maimuna, may Allah be pleased with her
59 Years Dhi Qa’d 7 AH March 629 AD
Hadrat Khalid bin Walid and Hadrat Umar bin Al-’Aas,
may Allah be pleased with both, accept Islam
60 Years Safar 8 AH June 629 AD
Ghazwa of Muta 60 Years Jamadi-ul-Awwal 8 AH August 629 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Mecca and Fall of Mecca 60 Years 10 Ramadan 8 AH 1 January 630 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Hunain (or Autas or Hawazan) and
Ghazwa (Battle) of Ta’if
60 Years Shawwal 8 AH January 630 AD
Arrival in Ja’rana Deputation from Hawazan accepts Islam 60 Years 5 Dhi Qa’d 8 AH 24 February 630 AD
Regular establishment of Department of Zakat (Alms)
and Sadaqa (Charity), and appointment of administrative
officers
60 Years Muharram, 9 AH April 630 AD
Deputation from Ghadra accepts Islam 60 Years Safar 9 AH May 630 AD
Deputation from Balli accepts Islam 61 Years Rabi-ul-Awwal, 9 AH June 630 AD
Ummul-Muminin Hadrat Mariya, may Allah be pleased with
her, gave birth to a son, Hadrat Ibrahim, may Allah be
pleased with him
61 Years Jamadi-ul-Akhar, 9 AH August 630 AD
Ghazwa (Battle) of Tabuk, the last great battle lead
by the Holy Prophet, peace be upon him
61 Years Rajab, 9 AH October 630 AD
Ordinance of Jizya, tax on non-believers seeking protection
from Muslims and exemption from military service in defense
of the country they were living in as its citizens
61 Years Rajab 9 AH October 630 AD
Pilgrimage journey of Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique, may
Allah be pleased with him
61 Years Dhi Qa’d, 9 AH February 631 AD
Hajj (pilgrimage of Ka’ba in Mecca) made Obligatory
by Allah Interest is prohibited in Islam
61 Years
Deputation Tai, Hamadan, Bani Asad and Bani Abbas, all
accept Islam
61 Years
Deputation from Ghuttan accepts Islam 62 Years Ramadan, 10 AH 631 AD
Departure from Medina for Mecca for Hajjatul-Wida (Farewell
Pilgrimage)
62 Years 25 Dhi Qa’d 10 AH 23 February 632 AD
Entry into Mecca for Hajjatul-Wida (Farewell Pilgrimage) 62 Years 4 Dhul-Haj 10 AH 1 March 632 AD
Hajjatul-Wida, departure for ‘Arafat, Farewell Sermon
Received the last revelation from Allah
62 Years Friday 9 Dhul Hajj 10 AH 6 March 632
AD
Return from Mana, Hajjatul-Wida 62 Years 13 Dhul-Hajj 10 AH 10 March 632 AD
Arrival of deputations from Nakha’ Last deputation received
by the Holy Prophet, peace be upon him
62 Years 15 Muharram 11 AH 11 April 632 AD
Sarya Usama bin Zaid, may Allah be pleased with him,
last successful military mission during the Holy Prophet’s
life
62 Years 28 Safar 11 AH 24 May 632 AD
The Holy Prophet, peace be upon him, falls ill 62 Years Monday 29 Safar 11 AH 25 May 632 AD
The Holy Prophet, peace be upon him, lead the last Salat
four days before his departure from this world
62 Years Wednesday 8 Rabi-ul-Awwal 11 AH 3 June
632 AD
The Holy Prophet, peace be upon him, offered his last
Prayer in congregation in the Mosque lead by Hadrat Abu
Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him
63 Years Monday 12 Rabi-ul-Awwal 11 AH 7 June
632 AD
The Holy Prophet, peace be upon him, passed away 63 Years Inna lillahe Wa Inna Elaihe Rajioon
Janaza (funeral) Prayer and burial 63 Years Wednesday 14 Rabi-ul-Awwal 11 AH 9 June
632 AD

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